Ebony and copper string windings from antique pianos, pernambuco from antique violin bows, brass guitar string “ball ends”. There is Paua Abalone, brass and nickel wires, mother-of-pearl as well. The finish is from cows milk, sterling U.S. made earring wires. This is all listed on the back of the cards as well as my website for people to look at material sources, etc. Price includes shipping and handling.